Coastline & Estuary: supporting countless forms of life.
Of all Norfolk's best know natural areas, the coastline takes the plaudits and adulation as being the most precious. Jutting out into ancient bird migration paths it is an international Mecca for many thousands of bird watchers every year, with two fertile estuaries offering a fecundity of precious energy in the forms of lugworms and shellfish for exhausted avian travellers.

The marine influence softens the climate and is responsible for the ever-changing patterns of sandbanks, dunes, shingle cliffs and precious salt marsh that contribute to this special area. The stretch of coastal marsh reaching from Holme to Weybourne is one of the finest in Western Europe, complemented with the extreme biological and geomorphological interest of the barrier island of Scolt Head and the outstanding shingle spit that is Blakeney Point. These two areas hold vital breeding territory for such diverse fauna as the elegant common tern, recorded here as a nesting species since 1830, and the grey seal, whose rookery has steadily increased in number over more recent years.  
Grey Seal - Sea Pig With The Long Nose
Short Eared Owl - Nomad Of The Marshes
Common Tern - Elegant Summertime Visitor
Pink Footed Goose - Herald Of The Winter
Knot - Long Distance Traveller

Wading birds roost during a low tide on the Wash Estuary. Wading birds roost during an ebbing tide on the Wash Estuary. Most birdwatchers reach their peak of excitement when the flowing tide is at its highest point. However, there is a serene beauty when the m
The Norfolk coastline is not only an outstanding area of
importance to the wildlife of the county itself, but also vitally important nationally and internationally. Stretching between estuaries, the Wash, a European Marine Site, in the west and Breydon Water, a Special Protection Area, to the east, it is a place to find a bewildering array of plants and animals that make a living from it; for some it is a permanent home, and for others a temporary stop-off for refuelling as part of a migratory journey or summer breeding residence that suits a particular requirement. Anyone that has visited either of the estuaries during autumn will have found it difficult not to notice the staggering number of birds feeding out on the mudflats, and may have been fortunate enough to witness the spectacular wheeling displays of roosting waders at high tide, more reminiscent of shoaling fish than birds, particularly the 90,000 knot that make annual use of the Wash during September.

Between these muddy, saline smorgasbords lay an Area Of Outstanding Natural Beauty containing some of the finest beaches in the U.K. with Holkham Bay proving a particularly fine example, boasting seemingly endless acres of white sand at low tide; on a winters day it is one of the best places in the country to find the handsome snow bunting, feeding on seeds washed up by the brine.

Grazing marsh and sand dunes proliferate here too, giving way to tidal salt marshes riddled with winding creeks that are unique in Britain; they join forces to provide a natural beach barrier system behind sand and shingle bars formed by the sea. It is here that speedy wintering raptors, the merlin and peregrine falcon, chase down tired and hungry waders or the elusive short-eared owl makes the most of vole gluts amongst the rough grass of the drained pastures.   


Red Fox
Barn Owl
Brown Hare

Tawny Owl
Roe Deer

Black Darter
Silver Std.Blue

Marsh Harrier
Norfolk Hawker

Stone Curlew
Red Deer

Grey Seal
Short Eared Owl
Common Tern
Pink Footed Goose

Text and photography © James Williamson |